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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2187\margr2799\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2187\margrsxn2799\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1739\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx3046 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex99\expndtw-17\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 52{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw5 RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1663\fi0\ri0\sb220\sa0\sl-241\slmult0\tx3323 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 not, however, _ attain the position of a popular god,\line The two  deities  that share universal veneration  are\line \expndtw0 Rudra and Visnu, still dominant in modern Hinduism,\line \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 In the \i ILigveda, \i0 Visnu is a mere form of the Sun-god;\line jhis worship by no means takes precedence.    So is the\line \expndtw4 case with Rudra, who has now won the most promi\-\line \expndtw5 nent place in the Vedic pantheon.    He is called the\line \expndtw7\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 ^great god", and he already bears  the epithet Siva,\line \i\super\expndtw5 %\nosupersub  \i0 propitious," current at the present day.   What was\line \expndtw-3 ::, nis primacy due to ?   Was the fusion of cultures in any\line \expndtw1 , way responsible for this development ?   At any rate,\line \expndtw2 a seal, found at Mohenjo-daro, depicting a male god,\line \expndtw3 pno, according to Sir John Marshall, "is recognisable\line \expndtw2 <as the prototype of the historic Siva," raises a strong\line \expndtw-2 presumption in favour of this view.\line \expndtw-7 "ti   *T?\super Ut\nosupersub  \super tilou\nosupersub 8\super l1\nosupersub  \super\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'b1\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 e\nosupersub %ion continued to remain polytheis-\line \expndtw-2 nft    tf\super e\nosupersub  \super Was\nosupersub  \super a\nosupersub  \super vast\nosupersub  \super cii\nosupersub ange in the religious spirit.    The\line \expndtw1 liliw \super ilytt\nosupersub ^\super s\nosupersub\sub 1\nosupersub\super were\nosupersub  \super n\nosupersub\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'b0\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 w becoming obscure and unintel-\line \expndtw-1 of   \scaps xt{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\scaps0 appreciation of the striking phenomena}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 I r_  Mature no longer inspired   the   poet-priests   to}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li2232\fi0\ri25\sb101\sa0\sl-180\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\scaps\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 a   \i0\scaps0 u \super tS\nosupersub '   ^\super ilUSj\nosupersub  \super\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'b1\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 eli\nosupersub g\super ion\nosupersub  assumed a stereotyped \expndtw0 and the Brahmans rose into such   complete as-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri94\sb0\sa0\tlul\tx1242\tx2315\tx4356 \f2\fs20{\b\i0\cf1\charscalex147\expndtw-8\f3\cchs0\lang1033\fs9 IfXT"    -t-h/i^-    \i ^\\{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\i0\expndtw0 ,{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw64 -11}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li1786\fi0\ri18\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0\tx4118 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 came to be regarded as veritable\line \expndtw-1 'hey laid stress on rigid formalism,\line >st complicated and all-embracing\line \expndtw-5 Mystic   significance  was   attached\line \expndtw2 everything connected with them was\line \expndtw4 "'   owers.   Indeed, it was thought\line \expndtw2 sacrificer depended upon their\line \expndtw29\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 ~ \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'99\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  or \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'ab\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 .{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\super\expndtw-2 l\nosupersub  ^ there was the least deviation}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0\tx3265 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\sub\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-12\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 r\nosupersub\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'bb\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 -.-    .. .{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw1 ^\super e\nosupersub  \super com\nosupersub P\super 1\nosupersub\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'ab\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0  and  minute   details,   dire}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-241\slmult0\tx1937 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 t#.%-V..-{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\i\expndtw38 ^^^^2^^\super t&\nosupersub   \i0\super to\nosupersub   \super foUo\nosupersub ^    ^   short,   the}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw35\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 s\nosupersub ^ ^portance in the ^^^That}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri14\sb389\sa0\tx2023 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex99\expndtw-1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 tlt{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw5 tlests\nosupersub  ^^ increased with the}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri14\sb0\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex99\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 Adhvaryu, and Brahman}\par }